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 Why Was It Important To Find Oil ? How Did It All Begin?

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kingsam




مُساهمةموضوع: Why Was It Important To Find Oil ? How Did It All Begin?    23/11/2010, 19:57

How Did It All Begin

In the 1850's unlike today, drillers took Sundays off, but one Sunday afternoon in August 1859, William Smith decided to inspect a well he was drilling. Perhaps Smith, known as Uncle Billy to his friends, was curious to see if anything had happened while he was in church. The well, near Oil Creek just outside Titusville, Pennsylvania, sat next to an oil seep, a place where oil from subterranean rocks oozed to the surface.
Uncle Billy had begun drilling the well in April for a former railroad conductor named Edwin Drake. Drake, whom everyone called "Colonel", was overseeing a remarkable project. He was supervising the drilling of a well whose sole purpose was to produce oil. Asians and Europeans had drilled oil wells, but no one in the United States had. Some of the local residents had also drilled wells near Titusville before 1859. These wells, however, were saltwater wells.
Uncle Billy's visit to the well that particular Sunday turned out to be fruitful. He peered into the pipe that encased the top of the hole and saw that it was full of crude oil. When word spread, dozens of new rigs appeared in the area and the boom was on. This small project in Titusville marked the beginning of the petroleum era in the United States.



Why Was It Important To Find Oil

There were two reasons Colonel Drake and his backers from New Haven Connecticut decided to drill for oil.

  1. A shortage of whale oil
  2. Oil that seeped naturally from the earth could not be held in a dam.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]


By the 1850's, New England seafarers had hunted whales nearly to extinction. Because people used whale oil as a high quality lubricant and as an illuminating oil, it was scarce and expensive. Reports of an oil spring near a Pennsylvania creek, where the oil literally leaked out of the rocks, therefore sparked the interest of the New Haven entrepreneurs. They reasoned that if they could recover enough rock oil from the Oil Creek site, they could sell it as an inexpensive substitute for the shale oil. They formed the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company of Connecticut in 1855 and began thinkng of ways to extract the oil.

Since the oil seeped onto the ground near the creek, it had to be contained, First, the bankers hired workers to dig trenches and direct the oil into holding ponds. To make the ponds, the laborers simply dug out the soil and piled it around the edges of the pond. Unfortunately, everytime they built such a wall, rainwater and groundwater washed it out and the oil ran off into the creek.
To solve the problem, James Townsend, president of the newly formed oil company, proposed drilling for the oil, rather than merely trying to contain what seeped to the surface. Others in the area had been drilling for salt water, or brine, for many years. Townsend hired Drake, declared him an honorary colonel, sent him to Oil Creek to supervise the drilling for oil. Drake, in turn hired Uncle Billy Smith, an experienced saltwater driller.


Spindletop

Spindletop is the name of a small knoll just south of Beaumont Texas.
The following is an excertp from a book "The History of Oil Exploration".
Anthony Lucas, an Austrian-born mining engineer, has been supervising the drilling of an oilwell since October 27, 1900.
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
His crew must install a new drilling bit on the string of a drill pipe. The date is January 10, 1901. The drilling crew begins lowering the new bit to the bottom of the hole. They run about 700 feet (200 meters) of drill pipe into the 1,000 foot (300 meter) hole. Suddenly, the well starts spewing drilling mud. The mud, a liquid concoction that carries rock cuttings out of the hole, drenches the rig floor and shoots up ito the derrick.

See the photo to the right.
The spoutig oil blows all the drill pipe out of the hole. The blowing well elates Lucas and his crew as they watch the display from a safe distance. They estimate that it is flowing over 3 million gallons (over 12,000 cubic meters) perday. The Lucas well produced 1,600 times that amount. It showed that burried layers of rock could contain tremendous amounts of oil. What is more, it proved that rotary drilling was an effective way to obtain it. Spintletop marked the beginning of the modern petroleum industry


Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Oil does not occur in underground lakes or rivers, contarary to what some people think. Instead, crude oil and natural gas occur in buried rocks. Not just any rock can hold hydrocarbons, however. to serve as an oil and gas reservoir, rocks have to meet several criteria...

Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks


Nothing looks more solid that a rock. Yet, if you choose a piece of sandstone or linestone and look at it under a microscope you will see many tiny openings. Geologists call these tiny rock openings pores.


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
The diagram to the left shows open spaces in a rock called pores.
A rock with pores is referred to as porous. This means it has tiny holes through which oil may flow. Reservoir rocks must be porous, because hydrocarbons can occur only in pores.



A reservoir rock is also permeable. That means its pores are connected. If hydrocarbons are in the pores of a rock, they must be able to move out of them. The arrows in the diagram to the
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

right shows how the pores can be


connected.
Unless hydrocarbons can move from pore to pore, they remain locked in place, unable to flow into a well. A suitable reservoir rock must therefore be porous, permeable, and contain enough hydrocarbons to make it economically feasible for the operating company to drill for and produce them.

Origin and Accumulation of Oil and "Gas

Charcoal is a form of the element carbon. Carbon is in all common fuels. Fuels are materials that give off heat when they are burned. A fuel may be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Fuels that come from the remains of living things are called fossil fuels. Wood, coal, natural gas and the liquid fuel petroleum are common fossil fuels. We are only going to discuss petroleum here.


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

Petroleum is formed within the crust of the earth. It is also called crude oil. Scientists think that the bodies of prehistoric sea animals and plants became trapped in sediments. After millions of years, heat and pressure changed them into crude oil and natural gas. Crude oil and natural gas are usually found together in the crust of the earth. To get the oil and gas, it is necessary to drill into the earth's crust.



Examples of Petroleum Traps


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
KLIM




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Why Was It Important To Find Oil ? How Did It All Begin?    24/11/2010, 01:34

لانه فعلا كل شي بيمشي بالبترول و هو عصب الحياة تقريبا كل شي مرتبط فيه حتى باسعاره و له سوقه الخاص يسلمو كنج
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Why Was It Important To Find Oil ? How Did It All Begin?
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