موضوع عن البتراء بالانجليزي Go about Petra in English
موضوع عن البتراء بالانجليزي Go about Petra in English
Petra, also called items, a historic city located in southern Jordan, 225 km south of the capital Amman to the west of the main road connecting the capital city of Amman and Aqaba.
The Petra of the most important archaeological sites in Jordan and in the world there is no parallel in the world recently won second place in the international competition for the Seven Wonders of which is a whole city carved into the rock pink color (hence the name Petra means in Greek rock) (offset in Nabatiyeh Rgimo) and Petra also known as the Pink City relative to the color of the rocks that formed to build, a city resembled Matkon Citadel.
Built by the Nabataeans in 400 BC and made it their capital . And in the vicinity of the city of Mount Aaron, who is believed to contain the tomb of the Prophet Aaron, peace be upon him and the seven springs of Moses striking the rock with his staff Vtfjrt. Petra was selected as one of 7/7/2007. The new seven wonders of the world.
History of Petra
Was Petra, the capital of the Nabataeans and the most important cities of their kingdom, which lasted between 400 BC to 106 AD, has extended its borders from the coast of Ashkelon in Palestine in the west to the desert of the Levant in the east. And from the north of Damascus to the Red Sea in the south, a site of Petra average between the civilizations of the country Mesopotamia and the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, economic importance has held the state Nabatean control of trade between the civilizations of these regions and their inhabitants and the trade caravans of up to loaded with spices and spices from southern Arabia and silk from Gaza, Damascus and henna from Ashkelon, glassware from Tyre and Sidon, and pearls from the Persian Gulf [2 .
End of the state were the Nabataeans by the Romans when Hasrōha and prevented by the water year 105 and they called the Arab state. In the year 636 became Petra live on the rest of the population on agriculture, but the quake, which hit years 746/748 and earthquakes dispersal of its people
Rediscovering the west of Petra
Image of David Roberts Petra painted in 1839
With the start of flights Orientalists of the Arab world in the nineteenth century was the discovery of Petra in 1812 by the hands of Orientalist Swiss Johann Ludwig Barakaart  who learned Arabic and studied Islam in Syria and came to Petra, claiming he is a Muslim from India to deny Islamic attire and its aim is to provide a sacrifice to the Prophet Aaron, and thus allowed local residents access to the Pink City, which contained a book printed in 1828 and known as trips in Syria and the Holy Land pictures of Petra. One of the most renowned graphics that Petra was the lithography drawn by David Roberts Petra and Wadi Moussa during his visit in 1839, and the more than twenty lithographic plate has been printed many of Petra, which gave international fame. There are many of Petra of paintings and other images dating from the nineteenth century, which shows how the attention it has brought re-discovered on Europe at the time. Famous works of Petra to painting watercolors of the landscape of Petra, the artist Cheranz about 1840 and the first map of the manuscript of Petra in English to draw travelers to Apodi around the year 1830 and the pictures of Petra imaging Freight in 1830 [and the width of the cabinet 28 meters and a height of 39.5 meters, and there are several statues of structural ( remains of the Nabataeans) and has become one of the seven wonders of the world.
Archaeological sites in Petra
Crystal Clear app kdict.png Main article: sculptures in Petra
There are several interesting places in Petra, including
The runway or the stage.
Palace of the girl.
The great temple.
[Edit] tourist facilities
Petra Jordan BW 22.JPG
And Petra, carved in the rock, and hidden behind the impenetrable barrier of mountains that barely compacted porous have a mysterious charm. The traffic Balsik a corridor through a narrow aspect of high-rise height, which barely allows the passage of the sun, provides a dramatic contrast with the magic to the next and suddenly opens into a natural square the famous Treasury of Petra carved into the rock, glowing golden in the sun.
There are several interfaces that entice the visitor throughout the ancient city, one monument to another teacher leads Bantoa distances. The overall size of the city and the beautifully carved facades is staggering and makes it give him an idea of the level of creativity and industry of the Nabataeans who made Petra their capital more than 2000 years ago. It is capital that the Nabataeans were able to establish a network of caravan routes which brought spices, incense, myrrh, gold, silver and precious stones from India and the Arabian Peninsula, to be traded to the west.
A result of the wealth they acquired, they adorned their city with palaces, temples and arches. As you set off from the gate entrance to the city and the valley is quite wide open. This section is known as narrow entrance door Siq. First Maatmr is set jinn which is a set of three freestanding rock cubes just to the right of the corridor and the crossing more through the slit visitor sees the tomb inscriptions carved in the cliff and in a moment turn into the corridor from the broad to the gap dark no more than a few feet and suddenly a few steps to get your first glimpse of the finest achievement of the Petra Treasury, which is visibly under the blazing sun and carved in the rock.
The height of this interface is about 39.1 meters and a width about Oabulg 25.30 meters, and the length of the columns on the first floor of about 12.65 meters, and in the second floor about 9 meters, and the jar on the kiosk, which stands at a height 3.50 meters. Composed interface cabinet of two sections: the upper and the Department of basement, with the triangle broken and ring the building, consists of the lower part of the six columns, as the pillars of the center, separated from the wall, and column capitals of the first type "vegetable," and there are some differences between the forms of plant crowns , and the columns above the millers decorated pairs of winged monsters, including vases, and their tails curled a trunks and interrelated, and both sides of the frieze on the face of highlights from the leaves of plants. Above form the triangle (Pediment) disk sun between the horns and ears of wheat, a symbol to the gods Isis (Isis) Egyptian, as we find in the middle of the cornice face out of the papers Alokanthus, has been distorted, and the top sides of the triangle stands animal winged, and show these shapes the impact of civilization Egyptian in content, are also found at the space side of the column base topped by a carved, which is a human form standing in front of a horse, and was sculpted forms of horses and camels in the arts Nabatiyeh funeral is clear: to help them to transfer the deceased in his journey to the afterlife. As for the upper part of the cabinet is composed of six columns, front and eight columns of the background, which is attached to the walls and the capitals of the second kind "plant", and in the middle of the interface we ring the building a roof italics in the form of tents, topped by a crown pillar and jar, but Alafrish higher, they are decorated various plant leaves, and forms of pomegranates, grapes, pine, including human figures and faces, and above Alafrish shape of a triangle on the sides Broken (Broken-Pediment). In addition to all of these motifs, we find between the columns, front and rear, sculptures statues on the rules, has been distorted in the later period, in the middle ring the building (Tholos) standing statue of the gods (Isis) with wheat, which symbolizes her, the gods of death, Egyptian, and on its side between the columns, we find statues of Victory, and triangles, we find the highest forms of bird sculptures eagle. We find symmetry in the interface to a large extent, in terms of decoration and architectural engineering, with the carvings on the sides is not identical to each other, but they are coordinated with each other or with the interface, so that was suitable for a variety. Dahlman has been described (Dalman) and the interface as consisting of the Treasury and the temple facades, front and rear and put on top of each, the basement shows the entrance to the temple, and the top shows on the campus of the sacred (Sanctuary). He added that this combination was replicated in the building of the monastery and the tomb only Corinthian, which is against the tradition, but appropriate for the place. There were several theories for the origin of the Treasury, has tried a large number of researchers to find buildings like it, may be a source of inspiration for the design of the safe. He found many that their origin dates back to the buildings in Alexandria, a temple Cleo Petra and the library, while he Babinschr (Papenstecher) to a ring the building (Tholos), in many private homes and palaces, where she was surrounded by Porticoes (), has been found Starkey (Starcky) The interface cabinet, reflecting the architecture in the city of Alexandria, Egypt during the era Hellenistic, and in any case, we find that this interface combines oriental influences, and represented in the gods, animals, mythical Egyptian, and eagle Syrian, and the form of jar East, with the methods of Hellenistic, as well as to the nature of Nabataean in the forms and trappings of crowns, and eaves, and some properties of the statues of classical architectural elements. Like the lower part of the Treasury, a temple-style Corinthian six columns above the base of low-rise, and the columns ending with crowns class Corinthian they do not resemble the crowns that we know in Jerash, Baalbek, which returns to the second century AD, then it is not, we find only two rows of paper Alokanthus, and the third row instead of the artist carved floral decorations are very accurate, out of a pine cone, to occupy the middle of the flat or Alapacos. Above the columns extend put to music class ion, has been broken between the last two columns from each side, and the frieze above the sculpture is also a model ion, consisting of floral motifs, animals mythical between the time-like pottery, which abound in the cemetery, called pots tears (Lecmrimaria) . The triangle Vicll four columns of Central, not the sum of the columns, as is the case in the temples Romanian, and within the frequent plant motifs surrounding with a woman who has distorted his features, and can be likened to gods experience enlightenment, now in the Museum of Amman, At the top of the triangle pillar (Acrckrium) with disk of the sun surrounded by the horns and ears of wheat, a symbol that the Egyptian gods Isis, and the gods Hatour that correspond to when the gods Semitic Astarte, and the triangle is based on the base of the second floor decorated with a frieze of flowers, and statues of sphinxes at both ends. Differs from the second round for the first round, in terms of decoration and architecture, in the center booth round is called in Greek (Tholos) surrounded by columns, Corinthian capitals, and surmounted by a roof-like repression, end the crown Cornthe and a jar, placed where usually the ashes of the dead, but they are symbolic as it is hollow , has been broken because the Bedouin were opening fire on them, Danin they contain safe Pharaoh, This has been a name circulating today, and on both sides of the kiosk Binaan decorated with columns, above them the triangle is broken, and over the corners remnants Eagles chopped, and these buildings constitute a corridor about the kiosk, and Eng returned to avoid monotony in the Nabatean, and make other prominent places and hollow, and break the triangles on the upper sides, and break Alhant in the basement, and made consistent between the statues of figures in both floors.
Statues: on the first floor between the columns of others, statues of gods known as the Greek Baldioschori, or (Castor and Pollux of the Romans) (Castor and polux) and the two sons of the god Zeus, and were leading the dead to the other world, and therefore holds each and every one of them the reins of his horse, and headed the first toward the West, and the second towards the east, a sign that they are following the sun at sunrise and sunset. Aldioschori and fits in the upper floor of the Amazon women warriors as they say Greek mythology, has raised each Blttha over her head, and began to dance the war dance, while the gowns flying in the air. The kiosk at the front, giving the statue of the gods of luck Taika and I brought her left hand a century of prosperity, and with the right symbol of fertility, and many such statues in Greek art, and the statue is surrounded by gods and winged victory number six.
Inside the cabinet is made up within the Treasury of the three chambers, two on the side and the other in the center, cabins side empty apart from Treasury dug in the room, Bank, and the chamber of Central and climb the stairs, reaching Dilaha 12.50 meters, and on three aspects of the cabinets are placed in sarcophagi for the burial, This was the room door closed bronze or wood, as evidenced by the effects of the remaining parties to the gate in the upper and lower .
Petra of the new seven wonders of the world
Beat Petra in the competition of the new Seven Wonders after the official support of the vote, where it was considered it a patriotic duty, and launched the Jordanian government propaganda campaigns heavily to Petra in the Jordanian newspapers, radio, Jordanian and Jordanian TV  to motivate the citizens of the Kingdom of the vote. And companies began to launch campaigns to support the vote .